Biblical Perspectives Magazine, Volume 24, Number 6, January 30 to February 5, 2022

The Superiority and Sufficiency of Jesus Over All Things:
A Review as Revealed in Colossians

By Billy C. Sichone

Central Africa Baptist University

Introduction

Jesus Christ is probably the one single individual that has made a tremendous impact in the world by not only his life but his teaching as well. He made several exclusive claims about his nature and purpose which affected humans in different ways. Some loved and worshipped him while others hated and despised him to the point of ending his life. Despite the various reactions, his influence does not seem to wane but grows from strength to strength, in different contexts. Successive generations live to tell his story of what a great saviour and mediator we have in Yehushua (1 Timothy 2:5).

Although his name continues to globally reverberate, growing from strength to strength in the hearts of people, many people have arisen both in the past and present to directly or indirectly challenge his claims to divinity, superiority or potency. Over time, some have even doubted whether he even ever existed (Schweitzer 2011)! This latter group is more willing (and likely) to believe that Aristotle, Homer, Socrates or some historically remotely distant philosopher existed rather than Jesus Christ. Comparatively, there is relatively more evidence of Jesus' existence than all the other mentioned Philosophers combined. Josephus or Pliny are examples of very early witnesses to this fact. Josh McDowell is another potent advocate quite apart from the panoramic internal witness of Scripture itself. Still others claim that something else other than Jesus will save the world. A further group never bother about Jesus rather trusting in money, wealth, fame, popularity etc. Increasingly, in universal thinking context, others think that acquiring a particular secret knowledge about the world is the universal panacea. Where should the saint lean? What is their sure guide? Such bugging questions deserve straight and candid answers if the Christian is to safely navigate their way through a toxically muddied watery pluralistic spiritual land scape at the present and future time.

While this present discourse does not fully respond to the questions raised above, it investigates what the Christian world view would be on the superiority of Jesus over all other things. It demonstrates, from the book of Colossians that all other hopes are vain and cannot save any one.

What the Bible says about Christ in relation to creation

Christ is said to be the creator of the Universe. Nothing in all creation became without His having created them (Colossians 1: 16-17). He was not an agent of creation but the creator himself. In reading Genesis 1:1-3, 26 we see aspects of the Triune God creating the world (although some argue that this verse and usage has more to do with majestic plural rather than a Trinitarian outpost. They base they claim on the name Elohim. We respect this is a great argument; worth exploring but for this paper, we tow the Trinitarian line and for good reasons, beyond the scope of this paper). In John 1:1 and other passages point to the fact that Jesus is the Creator. Further he also sustains all things that were created. In other words, Creation is perfect, mature and complete but what occurs now is preservation through the providence of God rather than continued creation by evolutionary means. Colossians makes this abundantly clear that Jesus is before all things and thus above all things. He is the fullness of all things.

What Colossians says about Christ and Creation

In Colossians 1:15ff, Colossians makes land mark statements to the effect that Jesus is not only sustainer but creator of all things. As earlier intimated, the work of Creation has been completed but preservation is at play. Macro evolution has never happened nor does though micro evolution, according to some sources we agree with, does take place within divine limits. The Gnostics boasted a secret knowledge claiming that this same knowledge was in hierarchies; stages but a reading of Colossians demonstrates that in Jesus all ultimately comprehensive knowledge and fullness are found. All other claims can only find meaning and fullness in Christ, who is the image of the invisible God, implying He is God himself. The Gnostics, like the evolutionists of today, think that human wisdom and ingenuity will sort out all things when infact this so-called stage angel knowledge is nothing compared to what is in Christ. Jesus is above human philosophies and thus creates ex-nihilo. While human ingenuity has a legitimate place in the world, it is a fallacy to believe that it can resolve all things thus bequeathing a universal utopia of sorts. The naturalistic project has amply demonstrated this claim. Human depravity still wrecks havoc despite the great advance of technological development, information or laws. Something is wrong somewhere.

What Colossians says about the Superiority of Christ

Christ is said to be above human philosophies and fine sounding arguments found in the Hellenistic contexts to which Paul writes. While the Gnostics believed and taught that one needed to acquire a specific kind of knowledge to ascend up the ladder towards self-efficacy and salvation, Colossians states that all those stages of knowledge cannot equal Christ who is supreme above all things. He is said to be the fountain of and source of all wisdom, power and sustenance. Jesus is potent a savior whose image reflects God; not the cunning philosophies of men which are, in effect, bringing men and women into bondage again. Jesus is the first born of all creation, the sovereign ruler of the skies, the creator and sustainer of all creation and in him are hid the wisdom of God with a total and complete salvation needing no other sources outside him. Once a person has Christ, they have all things, salvation, fulfillment, knowledge, wisdom and security. Thus people do well to trust in Christ and be delivered from the cunning craftiness of men as found in the world today. Norman Geisler, in one of his many helpful presentations aptly warns Christians against "philosophies of men," expertly dissecting the various philosophies that continue to bug Christians in every age. While not denigrating Philosophy per se, the Doctor gives great helpful insights and cautions as to why Christians should "beware of Philosophy." Christians need to read that potent paper. That said, today however, people idolize other things rather than Christ. Some things are legitimately good, in themselves, but need to be treated in perspective and in subjection to Christ. All the fullness is found in the superior Christ which the world sadly misses.

Gnostic thought

Gnostic thought ran something like this: if you want to be saved, you need to access a secret kind of knowledge and it is arrived at in stages, including Angel worship or some such mystic thoughts and perspectives. It also taught the flesh was evil and only the inner spirit was good (Lang n.d) . Thus, to acquire this secret knowledge at the highest level was salvation. However, when Christ comes on the scene, it is declared that actually, salvation is not found in these man made philosophies but in Christ, who is the image of the invisible God. To know Christ is to have all things and to be liberated from traditions and teachings of men. The Colossians needed to be assured that it was enough to have Christ to be saved. Today, Gnostic kind of thinking pervades about every aspect of life. New Age thought, with it's varied offshoots reigns, having percolated into about every sphere of life: in short, it is all-pervasive. Education, syncretism, mysticism among others, are vehicles (wrongly) touted to give salvation and satisfaction in this life. People miss the source of true knowledge and satisfaction-Jesus Christ.

Christian thought

Christian thought is clearly highlighted in Colossians. Jesus saves his people by delivering them from the dominion of darkness by transplanting them into his glorious Kingdom where he reigns as King (Colossians 1:13,14). Once delivered, people can now make correct choices and decisions premised on a regenerate heart where Christ reigns as Lord and King. A new heart results in a progressively maturing biblical world view away from the cultural default. Romans 12:1-3 becomes a reality, for instance. The new man, after God's heart leads in ways that delights in and wishes to know God better, thinking his thoughts after him, as some sanctified souls have well said before us. The converted person needs not fear, crave or seek other ways of Salvation but should rest content and secure in Christ. Despite the relentless attacks of Satan or the claims of mere mortals, the Christian can freely traverse this terrestrial ball knowing that to have Christ is to have all; wisdom, riches, peace, sanity, liberty, hope and safety among other blessings. The world cannot give this transformed world view that trusts God as the only savior of the world.

What Others have Said about Christ and Gnosticism

Many have undertaken to write or comment on the Gnosticism that we find in Colossians or other books like the gospel of John or I John. Historically, these books presented problems during canonicity stages because they tended to tackle some different shades of Gnosticism. Some Liberal Bible scholars surmise that the Gnosticism these books tackle is way too advanced for it's age and thus argue that Paul or John could not have authored the said books claiming that the views expressed were of a later generation. In our view, these are extremely frail arguments because a spiritually sensitive and well trained eye can discern or detect error/heresy from afar; long before it becomes a publicly menacing problem. However, in Colossians, the apostle Paul exposes the emptiness of this heresy in the light of Christ. Walt Lang (n.d) has written a whole 30 day devotion from the book of Colossians where he successfully demonstrates that Jesus is supreme above all. Jesus is said to exactly represent the Godhead and in him are hidden all the treasures of Wisdom. Lang further shows that all attempted maneuvers to eclipse Christ are futile because he it is that created all things and sustains them. Converted people are not only translated from the dominion of darkness but are said to adopt a theistic world view that reflects the glory of God empowered by the Holy Spirit rather than by the barren futile traditions, teachings, philosophies and values of men. Clearly and evidently so, many people (including a good portion of well meaning Christians like Craig or Ross) are influenced by evolutionary thinking that finds currency in a postmodern context. The Christian must thus watch and ensure that they are not ensnared by these deleteriously toxic teachings of men.

Importance of this Consideration

The consideration is helpfully good as it helps readers appreciate what the book of Colossians states in relation to Science or even competing philosophical thoughts of men, including evolution. It is amazing to note just how accurate the book is while at the same time exposing other opposing claims as to who Jesus really is. The devotional route of prayerfully reading books like Colossians helps one take in small chunks of the book for digestion across the day. We suggest that Christians spend more time reading the Bible, including the accompanying back grounds. This opens up the said books having given context. Though the message of Colossians is one, several applications in different directions can be drawn. This kind of approach helps cement what Lang and others have brought forth for our learning and caution. Once read from that perspective, it immensely helps us appreciate the centrality of Christ in our lives.

Lessons Gleaned from this consideration

Works like Walter Lang's devotional gives very helpful insights into the nature, uniqueness and superiority of Jesus Christ. Matthew Henry's monumental commentary is another worth feasting over. They may not be technical commentaries in that sense but definitely give rich spiritual food for the soul. Many precious gems fall out of these treasure troves as one reads through. Below are some of the lessons that naturally emanate from a consideration from the book of Colossians in relation to science (or even scientism), other world views:

* Reading the book of Colossians helps one meditate on the distinctions between Evolution and Creationism.

* The Age of the Earth is not directly discussed but Colossians makes a statement how or who created the universe. Jesus is said to be the creator in whom all things consist and hold together.

* Evolution claims that the earth is over 4 billion years old which age Colossians never mentions.

* The fossil record points to creation and appears consistent with the Creation account rather than Evolution.

* Jesus is said to be superior over everything seen or unseen, on the earth or outside it. He is the supreme in the Universe.

* Once critically analyzed, Evolution is actually empty but Christ gives hope and purpose to the soul.

* The Natural laws of science point to the universality of God's law because they are reliable pointing to a supreme personal orderly being.

* It is interesting that there are differing views of evolution even within Christian circles. While some hold theistic evolution, others hold biblical creation. Theistic evolutionists often hold process evolution and to an old earth while creationists hold to a young earth directly created by God.

* These differing views lead to different conclusions even amongst theists. Evolutionary thought has invaded the postmodern context.

* Many voices can be heard in relation to Evolution. For instance, P Mauro declares that evolution is a dogma, no one dares question it!

* Evolution thrives and survives on (long epochs of) time and chance. Remove these and it crumbles, a form of faith of sorts, hence classified as a religion.

* Evolution is actually a religion rather than often touted as Science.

* Perfection is only found in Christ not apart from or outside Him.

* The apostle Paul condemned the Hellenistic "science" or knowledge of his day because of being gnostic in nature because it combined Greek Philosophy and Jewish asceticism (Lang n.d.).

* Gnostic thought in Colossians posited the idea that Christ was a minor stage in the evolutionary ladder (one of them was the Angel stage…which in itself is a form of evolution!) but this cannot be! This was so because Gnosticism taught that one needed a particular secret type of higher knowledge to be saved. Another form of Gnosticism taught that the flesh was evil. Colossians however demonstrates that Jesus is all in all (Colossians 3:1). We do not need anything outside Christ.

* The book of Colossians is an antidote against error, evolution and Gnosticism.

* Unlike gnostic thought, we need both the material and spiritual aspects in our lives. We need not have false dichotomies. To that end then, Evolution is actually erroneous in nature as it emanates from Gnosticism but always remember that this is God's world, the whole of it!

* Christ must pervade our entire system as He is all that there is. Everything else must bow to Him and melt into insignificance! The whole of life is worship to God.

* The Bible states that creation actually took place, the flood did take place, the account of the fall of man and inspirations are all actual and true. They are not folklore or mythical stories as some would assert. People like G Kenneth (i.e. Genesis-The book of Beginning) assert that the accounts in Genesis cannot be factual and were collated from about three sources. This is a clear denial of what is true from the word of God. Logically, minds like Kenneth eventually reject scripture altogether.

* But the Bible is inspired and God used holy people to pen down scripture, using their respective contexts, dispositions and characteristic to pen down the infallible and inerrant word of God.

* The Holy Scriptures, in the original autographs, are perfect having been inspired by God. Although we do not have these original copies, we have others that were meticulously transcribed in which minor typo errors, not the doctrinal sense, could have been introduced. In the zeal to defend the King James Version of the bible, some individuals like Peter Ruckman or G.A Riplinger (1993), have swung to another extreme claiming that the KJV is so perfect even above the extant Greek and Hebrew texts. This is an error, though their point of scripture being inerrant is correct. The Bible has miraculously been preserved for all generations in the past as well as the future. Despite the varying view points and variety of manuscripts or translations, the Bible remains perfect. This point, Paul ably brings out in the book of Colossians. Scripture does not change

* On the other hand, views and theories of science are in constant change and flux. If new and better theories come up, the archaic ones are discarded. Not so with scripture!

* We may further assert that Science without absolutes is pagan idolatry, a kind of religion in itself. The Bible has absolutes unlike philosophical science.

* Science should have absolutes and based on experimentation rather than on the whims and opinions of men. Thus, true science is compatible with the Bible and Christ is the ultimate perfection not the material world or nature.

* Some people (such as George Gaylord Simpson) claim that the search for absolutes has been a dismal failure and cannot be fond either in scripture or nature. This claim is unfounded because Paul asserts in Colossians that absolutes exist in the perfection of Christ. While it is true that absolutes cannot be found in evolution, these can be found in scripture. Thus, Simpson's "The Meaning of Evolution" is misplaced.

* Further, the scripture does assert that the saints are holy because God, in Christ, has made them so. They may not be perfect but they are sanctified by the divine. On the contrary, Gnostics hope for a future better perfection once they ascend up the hierarchy. The Christian is blameless now and in this life!

* It is important to state that though some one may not be a saint, they could be creationists. They see through the lie of evolution and reject it. Evolution is inconsistent while Creation is consistent. God created a perfect world rather than one that continues to evolve to this day. It must be stated further that through creation thought, some have been soundly converted to Christ as was the case with Miquel Yapor (Mexico, 1985).

* It must be clear that Science cannot resolve all matters that arise. At best, it explains phenomena but unable to probe certain aspects such as motivations, opinions or origin of life. Though helpful, it is limited to certain levels or realms. WM. G. Pollard was right in thus asserting in his book "Science and Faith—Twin Mysteries."

* Mysteries abound in nature but absolutes found in Christ alone. Being in Christ gives definite positions.

* The Gnostics claimed to have a special superior knowledge which led them to salvation. Today, we have a similar situation and leads to a new kind of bondage for the animistic and all. They often have secret societies which are becoming bolder in our day and age, given the permissive postmodern context. The New Age Movement harbors many of these wrong notions.

* There has been considerable debate as to whether the Bible is a book of Science or Religion. The answer to this is not an easy one but like Dr Duane Gish has asserted, the Bible is a book about God that makes many statements including the scientific. Dr Sam Kirkwood rejected the Bible as a source of any truth. We can safely state that some reject Christ and His word. However, it is only in Christ that we find truth. All other truths are derived from Christ.

* In Christ, we have mysteries revealed, even those Science fails to reveal. Although there are mysteries both in Christ and nature, only in Christ do we find perfection.

* The authors of the book "Evolution equals one" suggest that Evolution is a superior religion given its apparent all pervasive nature. Any entity that does not subscribe to evolution cannot be accredited in some contexts. All creationist views are suppressed viewed as "pseudo-science" while accepting evolution as true science!

* Evolution and Evolutionary thinking has rapidly spread like wild fire since Darwin unleashed his views in 1859, taking over nearly all institutions and life in general. It is clearly more dominant today. One needs to be strong to contend on the Creationist platform or risk losing all support or public acceptance as an intellectual. One risks intellectual suicide to remain a creationist.

* By that token, Evolution has many proponents & followers. That beside, Christ remains the supreme.

* Christians must exploit whatever means to disseminate the gospel in the light of increasing paganism. The goal is to have the gospel dominant once again as it once was in some contexts.

* It must be stated that Evolution is not Science but "scientism".

* The gospel has global reach though we still need to do more.

* Evolution has gained a lot of supporters in our day but Christ is superior regardless.

* Evolution, as earlier mentioned is a form of Gnosticism.

* Scientific methods are based on the principle of uniformity says Dr Bolton Davidheiser, meaning that repeated experiments using the same approach should yield he same result. This is at variance with Evolution in some sense because for evolution, everything is in flux. For evolution everything happens by chance and thus random.

* There are several kinds/types of knowledge that the Hebrew scripture talks about namely: Knowledge (Chokma), Wisdom-Knowledge in action (Segel) and Spiritual understanding (Biyn).

* This means that nature alone cannot offer total knowledge. Only in Christ can total knowledge be found.

* Since nature cannot offer all knowledge, science needs new definitions to describe other knowledge.

* True authentic exact Science relies on repeated experimentation.

* Certain arguments at times do not consistently hold true such as archaeology's uniformitarianism. Some fossils are found in the "wrong places" as are human foot prints next to dinosaurs' fossils? Could they have lived side by side?

* Science cannot solve all our problems though in Christ, saints become more productive. He is the foundation of all things.

* The universe is amazingly complex and yet it points to the glory of God. Despite the vast galaxies with their myriad stars, all these have their source in Christ who created and sustains all things.

* After the fall, creation needs redemption and so do humans. This is what Jesus came to procure.

* Some scientific sources argue that the Universe is wide and expanding. This may be true and yet Christ is more powerful and created all things.

* Evolution believes in Survival of the fittest and yet in Christ all that he desires to survive will. He is before all things and the source thereof.

* Satanism, demon possession are real. They are alive, active and at times destructive. Demonic activity affects people differently. In Colossians, Christ is said to have delivered his people from the dominion of darkness. Whatever powers that be, Christ is far above.

* Christ is more potent over demons and Angels.

* There is need to distinguish between creation and preservation. In Genesis 1, God is said to 'bara'-Hebrew, 'ktisis'-Greek, create out of no pre-existing material but later the work of preservation kicks in which scientists study.

* Christ sustains (sunesteeken) all things because in him all things hold together (Col 1:17).

* God created all things from nothing in the Genesis 1 account but when the creation is complete in its perfection, God now sustains all things by His providence. Humans thus can only experiment in the Preservation mode rather than in the creation mode because creation is complete.

* God is not creating any new things since he created all things in six days. Macro evolution does not happen though micro does.

* Dr R.H Brown, a Radioactive dating PhD, believes that present evolution science is correct when it posits that the earth is 4.5 billion years old and yet at the same time holds a young creationist view from scripture. Such a disparity is worrying. It is either the earth is old or young not both. Dr Brown, however, is not alone in this dilemma. Ross and Craig are others.

* Some, like G Kenneth, believe that Creation is still going on to this day. He fails to distinguish between Creation and preservation, hence his conclusion and rejection of scripture. He fails to understand Colossians 1:18

* The False dichotomy between 'Spiritual' and 'Physical' must not be entertained. If one does not read Paul well, they may conclude that he supports the dichotomy in Colossians 3:1. He is combating Gnosticism remember?

* Scientists wish to play God by tinkering with Genes, developing synthetic cells and cloning among others. They have not succeeded yet to create a new super human being from scratch. Dr Bolton Davidheiser has attempted to explain the desire to create a new perfect human form as described by Aldous Huxley in 1932. Despite all the efforts or advancements, the world is still wicked and evil. True fullness is in Christ not naturalistic innovations

* Some people think Religion restricts Science or free enquiry.one such person is Keith Wilkes, a Theologian. This restriction is not true. The claim that the Christian faith damages Science is false.

* People prefer to take Evolutionary paradigm rather than the theistic despite Evolution being pagan in nature and origin.

* All magnetic forces in the atom are an extension of God's thought. He sustains all things.

* In a book 'Why scientists accept evolution', Robert Clark and James Bales, mention key names and early proponents of Evolution. Names such as James Hutton, Sir Charles Lyell, Charles Darwin, and Thomas Henry Huxley come to the fore. All these eventually rejected supernaturalism though some among them claimed to be saints. People need to be careful how they walk or think. It is worth mentioning that the Epicureans (Acts 17), long before the above mentioned were actually evolutionary in their world view.

* When one thinks of it, Evolution is a form of religion with attendant dogmas. It is at enemy with God. It grows out of a natural hatred for God.

* Some old earth believers like Bruce Atkins complain against young earth creationists claiming that the latter hinder the cause of the Gospel. A case in point was during a Grand Canyon tour in 1976 where Lang and Atkins met around the Grand Canyon of Arizona. It is important to note that God is revealed in Creation all around us.

* Some scientists now know that Evolution is not real science, therefore untrue, though they lack the courage to come out and denounce or reject it. In a book, 'Journey away from God' Robert Benedict demonstrates why Evolution is not science given its many contradictions to true science or its laws.

* The God head is involved in creation. Lang argues that the first three words in Genesis alludes to the trinity as does Gen 1:26. In Christ are hid all the mysteries and secrets.

* Matthew Fontaine Maury (1835…) first heard about the "paths in the sea" in reading Psalm 8 and went on to discover the ocean currents leading to the establishment of the US Naval Academy. Oceanography was established. Today, people do not want to refer to or hear what scripture says. God has hidden secrets in nature and the scientist must discover these. Some of these are mentioned in Scripture.

* Christians need to be rooted in Christ if they are to grow, mature and with stand anything against God. Colossians 2:6-7 is instructive. Never avoid Christ in your thinking or thoughts! Once not rooted in Christ, one can even reject scripture or believe strange things taught by men!

* Dr Duane Gish has demonstrated that spontaneous origin of life is impossible. Evolution does not make sense and thus untenable. Life could not have possibly emerged from a happy accident billions of years ago. It is most unlikely that scientists will ever succeed in creating life in a test tube from inorganic material.

* David Riegle wrote a book called "Creation or Evolution?" in which he discussed various theories of origin with their attendant problems. He concluded that man could not have evolved from a simpler organism to a more complex. He asserted that opposite was more probable because man has degenerated in sync with the laws of science.

* Christians should not be swayed by tradition, rules of men etc. No one should judge us based on past shadows when reality is here with us-in Christ. Christ sets us free from the ceremonial laws and other rules of men.

* The image of God refers to God's imprint upon the hearts of men enabling them to be rational and holy though this original holiness was marred in the Genesis 3 sin. This is repaired in Christ once regeneration takes place.

* The 'old man' must be daily drowned lest it takes over.

* In Christ perfect knowledge, holiness and wisdom are hid/found.

* New Covenant Theologians like Harold Roellig reject the idea that the New Testament saint has something to do with the Ten commandments. Roellig claims that Martin Luther's claim and view of the Ten commandments in relation to the saint was wrong. The commandment are relevant today.

* Evolution does not allow for perfection but absolutes of scripture do, one of which are the Ten commandments. Truth is absolute.

* Music is powerful and has a great effect on people. The Christian is to be filled with the Holy Spirit and controlled by Him. Music could also be a means of great good such as Evangelism. It has been claimed by some that more people were touched by Martin Luther's music rather than books or preaching.

* As Christians become more like Christ, they tend to sing more than they usually do.

* Peer to peer at times communicates the gospel more effectively. Music is one such media.

* Some music can be evil and the Saint should take care/heed.

* Some trends in Education and teaching are clearly anti-God. An example is the much touted "Sex Education". Another evil of the times is the thinking against Marriage as God has ordained it. Sadly, in some Churches today, divorce and remarriage is allowed and accepted as fine.

* Marriage is under threat even within the Church today!

* Today's sex education is anti-marriage and drives God out of the picture.

* The Christian should beware of the multiple systems that contradict scripture.

* Colossians addresses marriage on a smaller scale than does Ephesians

* When we have Christ dwelling richly in our hearts, our attitude towards marriage equally changes/improves.

* The present times tolerate infidelity, divorce etc. even in the church!

* We need to pray that God raises a generation of fidelity that treasures marriage.

* Some key educationists like John Dewey (of Cornell University), William H Kilpatrick, Harold Rugg, Horace Mann among others were heavily influenced by Evolutionary thinking and thus asserted that children were born neutral and needed not be corrected/punished. The resulting effect is that we have children that are undisciplined and scarcely can do things in a way that is pleasing to God.

* We can safely assert that today's indiscipline through evolutionary thinking has spawned a generation of undisciplined progeny.

* Christians need to beware of Philosophies that tend to go against scripture and may affect our world view/practice. Dr. Norman Geisler gave sound advice towards that end.

* Time is an issue in the Creation/evolution debate.

* Time can be viewed from at least two angles; 1. Time as a sequential flow (which will cease in eternity) and 2. Time as an order system (is forever in eternity)-ordering creation and events

* Evolutionary thinking idolizes 'time' which the Christian should correct by redeeming time correctly. Though time is important, Christians should not make an idol of it as the evolutionists have.

* Science has been invaded by evolutionary thinking.

* Objective science is good & God honouring.

* Never make time an idol that can easily replace theistic thinking.

Conclusion

Christ is pre-eminent regardless of what people think or feel. He reigns over all creation having created all things for His glory. In agreement with the hymn, 'Jesus shall reign where' er the sun doth its successive journeys run' He remains Lord of Lords and King of kings. Gnosticism has tended to taken different modes and phases but its central thesis remains the same, idolatry is at the centre of it all.

Christians have no reason to doubt or fear that true knowledge is inherent and resident in Christ, who is the fountain of all wisdom.

References

Geisler N. Beware of Philosophy: a warning to biblical scholars, JETS 43 # 1 (Mar 1999): 3-19.

Lang W.(n.d.). Colossians and Science, Indus School Resources # 054A2

Schweitzer A. (2011;2014). The Quest of the Historical Jesus: A Critical Study of its Progress From Reimarus to Wrede. The Project Gutenberg.

Riplinger G.A.(1993). New Age Bible versions, AV Publications.

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